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石油石化噪声控制




噪声问题


石油石化企业噪声来源非常广。有由于气体压力突变产生的气流噪声,如压缩空气、高压蒸汽放空、加热炉、催化“三机”室等;有由于机械的摩擦、振动、撞击或高速旋转产生的机械性噪声,如:球磨机、空气锤、原油泵、粉碎机、机械性传送带等;有由于磁场交变,脉动引起电器件振动而产生的电磁噪声,如:变压器。

石油石化企业噪声污染具有广泛性和持久性。一方面,石油石化企业生产工艺的复杂性使得噪声源广泛,影响面大;另一方面,只要声源不停止运转,噪声影响就不会停止,工人就会受到持久的噪声干扰或影响,所以,石油石化企业中生产性噪声多为高强度的连续性稳态混合噪声。


解决方案


石化炼制企业装置噪声综合治理虽有一定难度,但结合设备自身的运行特点采用切合实际的隔声、消声、吸声、阻尼、减振等综合噪声治理措施。

泵类,泵组两侧安装两道可移动式的隔声屏障,阻断和改变泵组噪声的传播。

加热炉,在现有外壳处粘贴一层自粘性阻尼,然后阻尼外再包一层镀锌板,构成一束阻尼隔声密封结构,通过安装时较好的密封,降低燃烧器辐射噪声。

压缩机,作为主要噪声源,包含电机电磁、电机风扇、连轴器等,采取在噪声处安装U型隔声罩。

厂界噪声,空冷平台及底部风机是厂界的敏感噪声,在空冷平台装置区设置隔声屏障。

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通过对典型炼油装置噪声源的分析,石化炼制企业的噪声重点部位主要集中在泵、加热炉、空冷、压缩机等设备,相应措施主要为隔声,其次消声,吸声以及阻尼,减振等,采取适应石化炼制企业装置特点,便于检维修和巡检。

 

 

 

Noise problem

    Petroleum & Petrochemical enterprises have wide noise sources, including the airflow noise caused by the sudden gas pressure change of such as compressed air, high-pressure steam discharged, heating furnace, catalysis “three-machine” room; the mechanical noise caused by mechanical friction, vibration, collision and high-speed rotation of such as ball grinding mill, air hammer, petroleum pump, crusher, and mechanical transmission belt; as well as the electromagnetic noise resulted from the vibration of electric device , such as transformer, caused by alternating magnetic field and impulse. 
    The noise pollution of petroleum & petrochemical enterprise is rather extensive and durable. On one hand, the complicated production technology makes noise source more extensive and influential; on the other hand, as long as the sound source does not cease, its outcome will not end and workers may be heavily annoyed and influenced by it; therefore, most of the noise produced from the production sequence in petroleum & petrochemical enterprises is of high-strength steady-state mixed noise.


Solution


    It is rather difficult to launch a comprehensive solution to address petrochemical equipment noise, but the comprehensive noise control measures, such as sound insulation, noise elimination, sound absorption, damping and vibration reduction, can be adopted in line with their operating characteristics.
    For pump: two portable sound barriers can be installed at both sides of the pump set so as to disrupt and divert the noise diffusion.
    For heating furnace: a self-viscous damping can be laid on the existing housing; then a galvanized sheet can be used to cover the damper to form a damping & sound insulation enclosure. The well sealed structure can be selected to reduce the radiation noise of combustor.
    For compressor: The compressor is a major noise source, including motor electromagnet, motor fan, coupler, so the U-shaped acoustic hood can be used at the place where makes noise.
    For noise within factory boundary: the air-cooling platform and the bottom fan are the sensitive noise sources within factory boundary; so the acoustic shields can be equipped there.
    

    Through analysis on the noise source of typical refining equipment, included in the key noise control area for the petrochemical enterprises are pump, heating furnace, air-cooling device, compressor and other equipment; the noise control measures are sound insulation, denoising, sound absorption, damping, and vibration reduction. The specific noise control measure must suit to the characteristics of petrochemical equipment to facilitate test, maintenance and inspection.